This is like an extended "favorite". The website Brain Pickings, which lists 9 Techniques for discovering and fighting "Baloney". Suggest people read their blog. But for my own memory I'll list them as 10 techniques:
- Testable: Confirm Facts, make sure verifiable assertion (testable)
- Validate POV: Debate Evidence from Multiple Points of View (POV)
- Discount Arg from Authority: Ensure Authority based on Facts & Experience. Discount arguments from authority.
- Test alternatives: Spin and Test multiple hypotheses, Examine all possible arguments and use 1 & 2 to eliminate bogus ones.
- Watch Personal Bias: Do not attach to hypothesis, even one's own or one's null hypothesis. Compare alternatives.
- Validate all links in a chained argument: To be an integral hypothesis all links must be validated.
- Validate Premises (this was listed under above). Faulty arguments usually based on faulty premises.
- Falsfiable: Ask if the hypothesis is falsifiable. If it's not it's out of scope for practical application.
- Occams Razor. If you have more than one hypothesis that fits facts, simpler and easier one probably true.
- Duplicatable? Practical? Is the hypothesis in the scope of practicality? Theories about origins of the Universe are fun, but not practical. Can it be duplicated? Can it be tested?
More at: http://www.brainpickings.org/